Tonsillitis refers to inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsils. The inflammation may involve other areas of the back of the throat, including the adenoids and the lingual tonsils. Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth. The tonsils are two pads of glandular tissue in your throat. Tonsillitis can be caused by bacteria or viruses.
Tonsillitis may include sore throat, white or yellow spots of pus on the tonsils, bad breath, fever, swollen lymph glands, pain when swallowing.
Tonsillectomy (removal of the tonsils). To make the decision to remove the tonsils a number of factors are taken into consideration. Most significantly in children is whether the tonsils and adenoids are resulting in sleep disordered breathing. Secondly the frequency and severity of infection are also taken into consideration. It is important to note also, removal of tonsils has been shown not to result in any long term problems relating to immunity in the patient.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux also known as acid reflux can range in severity from being an occasional, to being severe. It occurs when the stomach reflux back up into the oesophagus or mouth.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux (G.O.R.D), stomach acid content refluxes backwards up into the esophagus, occasionally reaching the breathing passages, causing inflammation and damage to the esophagus, as well as to the lung and larynx (the voice box).
Gastro-oesophageal reflux also known as acid reflux can range in severity from being an occasional, to being severe. It occurs when the stomach reflux back up into the eosphagus or mouth.
The voice box lining is extremely sensitive to stomach contents. Acid reflux causes redness and swelling of the larynx. This creates a sensation of irritation or mucus in the throat which people may mistake for post-nasal drip. Coughing and chronic throat clearing also commonly occur. Less commonly people may experience pain or difficulty swallowing
Many people with LPR do not experience the classic symptoms associated with GORD including heartburn, chest pain or an acidic taste in the mouth. In fact 50% of people with LPR have no other symptom except irritation in the throat and/or cough. Often these symptoms are worse during the day (when upright) and after certain foods (see below) which may trigger an acid reflux episode.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is treated according to its severity. Mild acid reflux include diet changes such as avoid acid reflux induced foods eg. Alcohol, caffeine, chocolate. Peppermint and fatty foods. Avoid large and late meals, lying down with a full stomach may increase the risk of acid reflux. Antacids are commonly used for short-term relief of acid reflux.
More severe acid reflux suffers may use: Histamine antagonists reduce production of acid in the stomach. But can be less effective than proton pump inhibitors (PPI’S).
Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly prescribed medication for patients that have long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
- Somac (pantoprazole);
- Pariet (rabeprazole);
- Losec (omeprazole);
- Nexium (esomeprazole);
- Zoton (lansoprazole).
Proton pump inhibitors are safe, although they may be expensive, especially if taken for a long period of time. The goal of treatment for GERD is to take the lowest possible dose of medication that controls symptoms and prevents complications.
Surgical treatment is reserved for people who remain resistant to medical therapy. A Gastroenterologist will make this decision.
A fibre optic laryngoscope is inserted in our procedure room under local anaesthetic to exclude any suspicious pathology such as tumours. Laryngitis due to reflux has a particular appearance on endoscopy. Another unique test which is currently undergoing trial is a nuclear medicine study evaluate the extent and volume of reflux into the throat.
Abnormal change in your voice, its often experienced with a dry or scratchy throat. If your voice is hoarse, you may have a raspy, weak quality to your voice.
Generally if you have developed hoarseness and it has not resolved after 3 weeks it is important to have it checked to make sure you are not developing throat cancer.
Hoarseness is caused by viral infection in the upper respiratory tract. Known as laryngitis (inflamed larynx). Other common factors that can cause, contribute to, or worsen your condition include: acid reflux, smoking, prolonged singing or overusing your vocal cords, inhaling toxic substances and coughing excessively. Prolonged hoarseness is usually due to using your voice either too much, too loudly, or improperly over extended periods of time. These habits can lead to vocal nodules (singers nodes), which are callous-like growths, or may lead to polyps of the vocal folds (more extensive swelling).
The treatment of hoarseness depends on the cause. Most hoarseness can be treated by simply resting the voice or modifying how it is used. However the otolaryngologist may make some recommendations about voice use behaviour, refer the patient to other voice team members, and in some instances recommend surgery if a discrete lesion, such as a nodule or polyp, is identified.